Financial Result The financial result for 2017 was minus €1,326 million (2016: minus €965 million), comprising equity-method income of €20 million (2016: loss of €6 million), financial expenses of €1,635 million (2016: €1,108 million) and financial income of €289 million (2016: €149 million). Details of the components of the financial result are provided in the following sections. Income (loss) from investments in affiliated companies The net income (loss) from investments in affiliated companies was comprised as follows: (XLS:) Download Income (Loss) from Investments in Affiliated Companies 2016 2017 € million € million 2016 figures restated Net income (loss) from investments accounted for using the equity method (equity-method income / loss) (6) 20 Expenses Impairment losses on investments in affiliated companies (2) (1) Losses from the sale of investments in affiliated companies – (1) Income Impairment loss reversals on investments in affiliated companies – 5 Income / losses from investments in affiliated companies and from profit and loss transfer agreements (net) – 2 Gains from the sale of investments in affiliated companies 6 5 Total (2) 30 The main components of the income from investments in affiliated companies were the equity-method income of €51 million from the remaining interest in Covestro and the equity-method losses of €16 million (2016: €4 million) and €15 million (2016: €3 million), respectively, from the Casebia Group and the BlueRock joint ventures. Further details of the companies accounted for using the equity method are given in Note “Investments Accounted for Using the Equity Method”. Net interest expense The net interest expense was comprised as follows: (XLS:) Download Net Interest Expense 2016 2017 € million € million 2016 figures restated Expenses Interest and similar expenses (638) (682) Interest expenses for derivatives (held for trading) (3) (3) Income Interest and similar income 135 272 Interest income from derivatives (held for trading) 2 – Total (504) (413) Interest and similar expenses included interest expense of €54 million (2016: €41 million) relating to nonfinancial liabilities. Interest and similar income included interest income of €96 million (2016: €10 million) from nonfinancial assets. The change in the liability for redeemable noncontrolling interest is reflected in interest income or expense. In 2017, a €49 million (2016: €0 million) increase in this liability was recognized as interest expense. Other financial income and expenses Other financial income and expenses were comprised as follows: (XLS:) Download Other Financial Income and Expenses 2016 2017 € million € million 2016 figures restated Expenses Interest portion of interest-bearing provisions (251) (189) Exchange loss (121) (326) Miscellaneous financial expenses (93) (433) Income Miscellaneous financial income 6 5 Total (459) (943) The interest portion of noncurrent provisions comprised €191 million (2016: €236 million) in interest expense for pension and other post-employment benefit provisions and a positive amount of €2 million (2016: minus €15 million) in effects of interest expense and interest-rate fluctuations for other provisions and corresponding overfunding. The interest expense for pension and other post-employment benefit provisions included €539 million (2016: €640 million) for the unwinding of discount on the present value of the defined benefit obligation and €348 million (2016: €404 million) in interest income from plan assets. The miscellaneous financial expenses included €210 million in commitment fees and other fees related to the syndicated bank financing for the planned acquisition of Monsanto. The €172 million in negative fair value changes of the debt instruments (exchangeable bond) issued in June 2017 was also recognized in miscellaneous financial expenses.